Introduction of Minus Interest Rate
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 Home > Introduction of Minus Interest Rate
The meaning of currency

 In order to review financial / economic theory, we have to consider money. What is money?
 Money is called [currency] in this book. Both coin and paper money are called [currency].
 Important role of currency is exchange function of value. It is paid when objects and services are bought. Paid currency becomes currency of receiver. Thus currency is paid just as much as the value of objects / services from buyer to supplier. Therefore currency has function to indicate both magnitude and direction of exchanged value. Direction is indicated by possession of currency, and magnitude is indicated by amount.
 Then, what does currency become after the exchange? Value of currency is fixed for the first time when it is exchanged with objects / services. Value of currency is not fixed before economic transaction. Therefore, value of money after exchange will not be fixed till next economic transaction

 In short,
 [Currency that is not used in transaction can’t have amount.]

 When economic transaction is done, currency has just as much value as value of transaction.
 For these reasons, it is necessary to generate following rule in order to satisfy both exchange function and save function of value.

 [Value of currency occurs only at the moment of making a deal]
 Value of currency doesn’t occur without transaction.
 In traditional economic theory, currency has as much value as amount of the currency. Owner of currency has value corresponding to the amount. But, if social unrest etc. happen after receive of currency and economic transactions don’t go through at all, how about the value of currency. As there is nothing that can be exchanged with currency, currency has no value.
 If society stabilizes and something can be bought with money, currency can have the same value as bought objects at the moment of realizing the buy.

 For these reasons, it is understood that traditional economic theory that protests [Currency itself has value] is imperfect. Value of currency does not continue. Currency has the same value as exchanged objects at the moment of going through economic   transaction. When economic transaction is finished, value of currency is extinguished. When this currency is used in next economic transaction, the currency repossess value. This is essential meaning of currency. Therefore, possession of currency functions as record of

 [economic transaction was done previously, and value corresponding to amount of money was supplied.]

 There may be someone who reacts against the explanation described above by stating
 [For what purpose do we work? It is unrealistic that salary clears at the moment of receiving it.].

 The explanations described above are only essential meanings of currency. Salary consistently remains. Value is just not realized. Value is realized at the moment of buying something with the salary. It is not until the salary is exchanged with something that value of salary is realized. Is it OK with you?


                                          --> Japanese
   Introduction of Minus Interest Rate (PDF)
   The meaning of currency
   What is Interest rate?
   Decision method of interest rate
   Difference between interest rate and economic growth rate
   The influence of government activity to interest rate
   Calculation of basic interest rate
   Currency is fractal structure
   Deflation occurrence rule
   Occurrence status of bad debts by difference between interest rate
      on loans and economic growth rate
   Mechanism of Japanese recession
   Necessity for minus interest rate
   Effect of introduction of minus interest rate
   Improvement of banking system
   Change of interest rate decision rule
   Increase of assets caused by minus interest rate
   Reconstruction of economic theory
   Solution of deflation problem
   What is real richness

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